Network Roles

Gaining insight into the network protocol via its engaged participants

Defining Roles

Layer4 Network accommodates four distinct node roles: Sequencers, Threshold Signature Scheme (TSS) nodes, Rollup Verifiers/Replica Nodes, and Data Availability (DA) nodes. Below is a succinct delineation of their individual responsibilities.


  • Receive and promptly record transactions submitted by users

  • Generate blocks within Layer 2 (L2)

  • Aggregate transactions to produce batches along with execution state roots

  • Have their blocks validated by the TSS module

  • Disseminate block data throughout the network, encompassing both Layer 1 (L1) and Layer 2 (L2) aspects

Threshold Signature Scheme (TSS) Nodes

  • "Sign off" transaction batches produced by Sequencers to be sent to L1

  • Broadcast batches across the L2 network after verification

Rollup Verifiers / Replica Nodes

  • Synchronize rollup data sourced from Layer4's reliable sequencer

  • Authenticate the state roots provided by Sequencers on Layer 2 (L2)

  • Activate fraud proofs in instances of erroneous state data identification

  • Distribute rollup data to users

Data Availability (DA) Nodes

  • Voluntarily undertake the duty of preserving a duplicate of Layer4 transaction data to ensure its availability for retrieval as required

Layer4 DA Smart Contracts

The suite of Data Availability (DA) smart contracts operating on Ethereum undertakes the following responsibilities:

  • Ensures that data is acknowledged as available only when a consortium of operators with a substantial stake collectively affirms it through signatures Implements the proof-of-custody protocol and establishes mechanisms for challengers to unveil data on the blockchain

  • Validates the integrity of data disclosed by challengers against a signed commitment and enforces slashing according to the proof-of-custody protocol

The data storage workflow on Layer4 DA

  • Encoding: Disperser encodes data fragments and generates KZG multireveal proofs to allow Operators to verify the accuracy of their fragments.

  • Dispersal: Disperser transmits data fragments to the respective DA Operators

  • Attestation: Operators authenticate their fragments against the global commitment. Upon successful verification, the Operator stores their data fragment for the duration specified by the Disperser and sends an attestation back.

  • Aggregation: Upon receiving sufficient signatures, the Disperser aggregates the signatures and releases them on L1 Ethereum.

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